Rules of Snooker
Official rules reproduced with the
permission of World Snooker. To purchase an Official
Rule Book, call World Snooker on 0117 317 8200.
SECTION 1. EQUIPMENT
Measurements in parenthesis state
the metric equivalent to the nearest millimetre
1. The Standard Table
(a) The playing area within the cushion faces shall
measure 11 ft
8½in x 5ft 10in (3569mm x 1778mm) with a tolerance
on both dimensions of +/_ ½ in (+/_ 13mm).
(b) The height of the table from the floor to the top
of the cushion
Rail shall be from 2ft9½in to 2ft 10½in
(851mm to 876mm).
(i) There shall be pockets at the corners (two at the
Spot end known as the top pockets and two at the Baulk
end known as the bottom pockets) and one each at the
middle of the longer sides (known as the centre pockets).
(ii) The pocket openings shall conform to the templates
authorised by the World Professional Billiards and Snooker
Baulk-line and Baulk
(d) A straight line drawn 29in (737mm) from the face
of the bottom cushion and parallel to it is called the
Baulk-line, and that line and the intervening space
is termed the Baulk.
(e) The "D" is a semi-circle described in
Baulk with its centre at the middle of the Baulk-line
and with a radius of 11½in (292mm).
(f) Four spots are marked on the centre longitudinal
line of the table:
(i) the Spot (known as the Black Spot), 12¾in
(324mm) from a point perpendicularly below the face
of the top cushion.
(ii) The Centre Spot (known as the Blue Spot), located
midway between the faces of the top and bottom cushions.
(iii) The Pyramid Spot (known as the Pink Spot), located
midway between the Centre Spot and the face of the top
(iv) The Middle of the Baulk-line (known as the Brown
Two other spots used are located at
the corners of the ’D’. Viewed from the
Baulk end, the one on the right is known as the Yellow
Spot and the one on the left as the Green Spot.
The balls shall be of an approved
composition and shall each have a diameter of 52.5mm
with a tolerance of +/- 0.05mm and:
(a) they shall be of equal weight within a tolerance
of 3g per set
(b) a ball or set of balls may be changed by agreement
between the players or on a decision by the referee.
The correct value for the balls are
A cue shall be not less than 3ft (914mm)
in length and shall show no substantial departure from
the traditional and generally accepted shape and form.
Various cue rests, long cues (called
butts and half-butts according to length), extensions
and adaptors may be used by players faced with difficult
positions for cueing. These may form part of the equipment
normally found at the table but also include equipment
introduced by either player or the referee (see also
Section 3 Rule 18). All extensions, adaptors and other
devices to aid cueing must be of a design approved by
SECTION 2. DEFINITIONS
A frame of snooker comprises the period of the play
from the first stroke, with all the balls set as described
in Section 3 Rule 2, until the frame is completed by:
(a) concession by any player during his turn,
(b) claim by the striker when only the Black remains
and there is more than seven points difference between
the scores in his favour,
(c) the final pot or foul when only the Black remains,
(d) being awarded by the referee under Section 3 Rule
14(c) or Section 4 Rule 2.
A game is an agreed or stipulated number of frames.
A match is an agreed or stipulated number of games.
(a) The White ball is the cue-ball.
(b) The 15 Reds and the 6 colours are the object balls.
The person about to play or in play is the striker and
remains so until the referee has decided he has left
the table at the end of his turn.
(a) A stroke is made when the striker strikes the cue-ball
with the tip of the cue.
(b) A stroke is fair when no infringement of Rule is
(c) A stroke is not completed until all balls have come
(d) A stroke may be made directly or indirectly, thus:
(i) a stroke is direct when the cue-ball strikes an
object ball without first striking a cushion
(ii) a stroke is indirect when the cue-ball strikes
one or more cushions before striking an object ball.
A pot is when an object ball, after contact with another
ball and without any infringement of these Rules, enters
a pocket. Causing a ball to be potted is known as potting.
A break is a number of pots in successive strokes made
in any one turn by a player during a frame.
(a) The cue-ball is in-hand
(i) before the start of each frame,
(ii) when it has entered a pocket, or
(iii) when it has been forced off the table.
(b) It remains in-hand until
(i) it is played fairly from in-hand, or
(ii) a foul is committed whilst the ball is on the table
(c) The striker is said to be in-hand when the cue-ball
is in-hand as above.
10. Ball in Play
(a) The cue-ball is in play when it is not in-hand.
(b) Object balls are in play from the start of the frame
until pocketed or forced off the table.
(c) Colours become in play again when re-spotted.
11. Ball On
Any ball which may be lawfully struck by the first impact
of the cue-ball, or any ball which may not be so struck
but which may be potted, is said to be on.
12. Nominated Ball
(a) A nominated ball is the object ball which the striker
declares, or indicates to the satisfaction of the referee,
he undertakes to hit with the first impact of the cue-ball.
(b) If requested by the referee, the striker must declare
which ball he is on.
13. Free Ball
A free ball is a ball which the striker nominates as
the ball on when snookered after a foul (see Section
3 Rule 10).
14. Forced Off the Table
A ball is forced off the table if it comes to rest other
than on the bed of the table or in a pocket, or if it
is picked up by the striker, whilst it is in play except
as provided for in Section 3 Rule 14(h).
A foul is any infringement of these Rules.
The cue-ball is said to be snookered when a direct stroke
in a straight line to every ball on is wholly or partially
obstructed by a ball or balls not on. If one or more
balls on can be struck at both extreme edges free of
obstruction by any ball not on, the cue-ball is not
(a) If in-hand, the cue-ball is snookered if it is obstructed
as described above from all possible positions on or
within the lines of the "D".
(b) If the cue-ball is so obstructed from hitting a
ball on by more than one ball not on
(i) the ball nearest to the cue-ball is considered to
be the effective snookering ball, and
(ii) should more than one obstructing ball be equidistant
from the cue-ball, all such balls will be considered
to be effective snookering balls.
(c) When Red is the ball on, if the cue-ball is obstructed
from hitting different Reds by different balls not on,
there is no effective snookering ball.
(d) The striker is said to be snookered when the cue-ball
is snookered as above
(e) The cue-ball cannot be snookered by a cushion. If
the curved face of a cushion obstructs the cue-ball
and is closer to the cue-ball than any obstructing ball
not on, the cue-ball is not snookered.
17. Spot Occupied
A spot is said to be occupied if a ball cannot be placed
on it without that ball touching another ball.
18. Push Stroke
A push stroke is made when the tip of the cue remains
in contact with the cue-ball
(a) after the cue-ball has commenced its forward motion,
(b) as the cue-ball makes contact with an object ball
except, where the cue-ball and an object ball are almost
touching, it shall not be deemed a push stroke if the
cue-ball hits a very fine edge of the object ball.
19. Jump Shot
A jump shot is made when the cue-ball passes over any
part of an object ball, whether touching it in the process
or not, except:
(a) when the cue-ball first strikes one object ball
and then jumps over another ball,
(b) when the cue-ball jumps and strikes an object ball,
but does not land on the far side of that ball,
(c) when, after striking an object ball lawfully, the
cue-ball jumps over that ball after hitting a cushion
or another ball.
A miss is when the cue-ball fails to first contact a
ball on and the referee considers that the striker has
not made a good enough attempt to hit a ball on.
SECTION 3. THE GAME
Snooker may be played by two or more players, either
independently or as sides. The game can be summarised
(a) Each player uses the same White cue-ball and there
are twenty-one object balls - fifteen Reds each valued
1, and six colours: Yellow valued 2, Green 3, Brown
4, Blue 5, Pink 6 and Black 7.
(b) Scoring strokes in a player’s turn are made
by potting Reds and colours alternately until all the
Reds are off the table and then the colours in the ascending
order of their value.
(c) Points awarded for scoring strokes are added to
the score of the striker.
(d) Penalty points from fouls are added to the opponent’s
(e) A tactic employed at any time during a frame is
to leave the cue-ball behind a ball not on such that
it is snookered for the next player. If a player or
side is more points behind than are available from the
balls left on the table, then the laying of snookers
in the hope of gaining points from fouls becomes most
(f) The winner of a frame is the player or side
(i) making the highest score,
(ii) to whom the frame is conceded, or
(iii) to whom it is awarded under Section 3 Rule 14(c)
or Section 4 Rule 2.
(g) The winner of a game is the player or side
(i) winning most, or the required number of frames
(ii) making the greatest total where aggregate points
are relevant, or
(iii) to whom the game is awarded under Section 4 Rule
(h) The winner of a match is the player or side winning
most games or, aggregate points are relevant, with the
2. Position of Balls
(a) At the start of each frame the cue-ball is in-hand
and the object balls are positioned on the table as
(i) the Reds in the form of a tightly-packed equilateral
triangle, with the Red at the apex standing on the centre
line of the table, above the Pyramid Spot such that
it will be as close to the Pink as possible without
touching it, and the base of the triangle nearest to,
and parallel with, the top cushion.
(ii) Yellow on the right-hand corner of the "D"
(iii) Green on the left-hand corner of the "D"
(iv) Brown on the Middle of the Baulk-line,
(v) Blue on the Centre Spot,
(vi) Pink on the Pyramid Spot, and
(vii) Black on the Spot.
(b) After a frame has started, a ball in play may only
be cleaned by the referee upon reasonable request by
the striker and
(i) the position of the ball, if not spotted, shall
be marked by a suitable device prior to the ball being
lifted for cleaning,
(ii) the device used to mark the position of a ball
being cleaned shall be regarded as and acquire the value
of the ball until such time as the ball has been cleaned
and replaced. If any player other than the striker should
touch or disturb the device, he shall be penalised as
if he were the striker, without affecting the order
of play. The referee shall return the device or ball
being cleaned to its position, if necessary, to his
satisfaction, even if it was picked up.
3. Mode of Play
The players shall determine the order of play by lot
or in any mutually agreed manner.
(a) The order of play thus determined must remain unaltered
throughout the frame, except a player may be asked by
the next player to play again after any foul.
(b) The player or side to strike first must alternate
for each frame during a game.
(c) The first player plays from in-hand, the frame commencing
when the cue-ball has been placed on the table and contacted
by the tip of the cue, either
(i) as a stroke is made, or
(ii) while addressing the cue-ball.
(d) For a stroke to be fair, none of the infringements
described below in Rule 12, Penalties, must occur.
(e) For the first stroke of each turn, until all Reds
are off the table, Red or a free ball nominated as a
Red is the ball on, and the value or each Red and any
free ball nominated as a Red, potted in the same stroke,
(f) (i) If a Red, or a free ball nominated as a Red,
is potted, the same player plays the next stroke and
the next ball on is a colour of the striker’s
choice which, if potted, is scored and the colour is
(ii) The break is continued by potting Reds and colours
alternately until all the Reds are off the table and,
where applicable, a colour has been played at following
the potting of the last Red.
(iii) The colours then become on in the ascending order
of their value as per Section 3 Rule 1(a) and when next
potted remain off the table, except as provided for
in Rule 4 below, and the striker plays the next stroke
at the next colour on.
(g) Reds are not replaced on the table once pocketed
or forced off the table regardless of the fact that
a player may thus benefit from a foul. Exceptions to
this concept are provided for in Section 3 Rules 2(b)(ii),
9, 14(f), 14(h) and 15.
(h) If the striker fails to score or commits a foul,
his turn ends and the next player plays from where the
cue-ball comes to rest, or from in-hand if the cue-ball
is off the table.
4. End of Frame, Game or Match
(a) When only the Black is left, the first score or
foul ends the frame excepting only if the following
conditions both apply:
(i) the scores are then equal, and
(ii) aggregate scores are not relevant.
(b) When both conditions in (a) above apply
(i) the Black is spotted,
(ii) the players draw lots for choice of playing
(iii) the next player plays from in-hand, and
(iv) the next score or foul ends the frame.
(c) When aggregate scores determine the winner of a
game or match, and the aggregate scores are equal at
the end of the last frame, the players in that frame
shall follow the procedure for a re-spotted Black set
out in (b) above.
5. Playing from In-hand
To play from in-hand, the cue-ball must be struck from
a position on or within the lines of the "D",
but it may be played in any direction.
(a) The referee will state, if asked, whether the cue-ball
is properly placed (that is, not outside the lines of
(b) If the tip of the cue should touch the cue-ball
while positioning it, and the referee is satisfied that
the striker was not attempting to play a stroke, then
the cue-ball is not in play.
6. Hitting Two Balls Simultaneously
Two balls, other than two Reds or a free ball and a
ball on, must not be struck simultaneously by the first
impact of the cue-ball.
7. Spotting Colours
Any colour pocketed or forced off the table shall be
spotted before the next stroke is made, until finally
potted under Section 3 Rule 3(f).
(a) A player shall not be held responsible for any mistake
by the referee in failing to spot correctly any ball.
(b) If a colour is spotted in error after being potted
in ascending order as per Section 3 Rule 3(f)(iii),
it shall be removed from the table without penalty when
the error is discovered and play shall continue.
(c) If a stroke is made with a ball or balls not correctly
spotted, they will be considered to be correctly spotted
for subsequent strokes. Any colour incorrectly missing
from the table will be spotted:
(i) without penalty when discovered if missing due to
(ii) subject to penalty if the striker player before
the referee was able to effect the spotting.
(d) If a colour has to be spotted and its own spot is
occupied, it shall be placed on the highest value spot
(e) If there is more than one colour to be spotted and
their own spots are occupied, the highest value ball
shall take precedence in order of spotting.
(f) If all spots are occupied, the colour shall be placed
as near its own spot as possible, between that spot
and the nearest part of the top cushion.
(g) In the case of Pink and Black, if all spots are
occupied and there is no available space between the
relevant spot and the nearest part of the top cushion,
the colour shall be placed as near to its own spot as
possible on the centre line of the table below the spot.
(h) In all cases, the colour when spotted must not be
touching another ball.
(i) A colour, to be properly spotted, must be placed
by hand on the spot designated in these Rules.
8. Touching Ball
(a) If the cue-ball comes to rest touching another ball
or balls that are, or could be, on, the referee shall
state TOUCHING BALL and indicate which ball or balls
on the cue-ball is touching.
(b) When a touching ball has been called, the striker
must play the cue-ball away from that ball without moving
it or it is a push stroke.
(c) Providing the striker does not cause the object
ball to move, there shall be no penalty if:
(i) the ball is on,
(ii) the ball could be on and the striker declares he
is on it, or
(ii) the ball could be on and the striker declares,
and first hits, another ball that could be on.
(d) If the cue-ball comes to rest touching or nearly
touching a ball that is not on, the referee, if asked
whether it is touching, will answer YES or NO. The striker
must play away without disturbing it as above but must
first hit a ball that is on.
(e) When the cue-ball is touching both a ball on and
a ball not on, the referee shall only indicate the ball
on as touching. If the striker should ask the referee
whether the cue-ball is also touching the ball not on,
he is entitled to be told.
(f) If the referee is satisfied that any movement of
a touching ball at the moment of striking was not caused
by the striker, he will not call a foul.
(g) If a stationary object ball, not touching the cue-ball
when examined by the referee, is later seen to be in
contact with the cue-ball before a stroke has been made,
the balls shall be repositioned by the referee to his
9. Ball on Edge of Pocket
(a) If a ball falls into a pocket without being hit
by another ball, and being no part of any stroke in
progress, it shall be replaced and any points scored
(b) If it would have been hit by any ball involved in
(i) with no infringement of these Rules, all balls will
be replaced and the same stroke played again, or a different
stroke may be played at his discretion, by the same
(ii) if a foul is committed, the striker incurs the
penalty prescribed, all balls will be replaced and the
next player has the usual options after a foul.
(c) If a ball balances momentarily on the edge of a
pocket and then falls in, it shall count as in the pocket
and not be replaced.
10. Snookered After a Foul
After a foul, if the cue-ball is snookered, the referee
shall state FREE BALL (see Section 2, Rule 16).
(a) If the player next in turn elects to play the next
(i) he may nominate any ball as the ball on, and
(ii) any nominated ball shall be regarded as, and acquire
the value of, the ball on except that, if potted, is
shall then be spotted.
(b) It is a foul if the cue-ball should
(i) fail to hit the nominated ball first, or first simultaneously
with the ball on, or
(ii) be snookered on all Reds, or the ball on, by the
free ball thus nominated, except when the Pink and Black
are the only object balls remaining on the table.
(c) If the free ball is potted, it is spotted and the
value of the ball on is scored.
(d) If a ball on is potted, after the cue-ball struck
the nominated ball first, or simultaneously with a ball
on, the ball on is scored and remains off the table.
(e) If both the nominated ball and a ball on are potted,
only the ball on is scored unless it was a Red, when
each ball potted is scored. The free ball is then spotted
and the ball on remains off the table.
(f) If the offender is asked to play again, the free
ball call becomes void.
If a foul is committed, the referee shall immediately
(a) If the striker has not made a stroke, his turn ends
immediately and the referee shall announce the penalty.
(b) If a stroke has been made, the referee will wait
until completion of the stroke before announcing the
(c) If a foul is neither awarded by the referee, nor
successfully claimed by the non-striker before the next
stroke is made, it is condoned.
(d) Any colour not correctly spotted shall remain where
positioned except that if off the table it shall be
(e) All points scored in a break before a foul is awarded
are allowed but the striker shall not score any points
for any ball pocketed in a stroke called foul.
(f) The next stroke is played from where the cue-ball
comes to rest or, if the cue-ball is off the table,
(g) If more than one foul is committed in the same stroke,
the highest value penalty shall be incurred.
(h) The player who committed the foul
(i) incurs the penalty prescribed in Rule 12 below,
(ii) has to play the next stroke if requested by the
All fouls will incur a penalty of four points unless
a higher one is indicated in paragraph (a) to (d) below.
(a) value of the ball on by
(i) striking the cue-ball more than once,
(ii) striking when both feet are off the floor,
(iii) playing out of turn,
(iv) playing improperly from in-hand, including at the
(v) causing the cue-ball to miss all object balls,
(vi) causing the cue-ball to enter a pocket,
(vii) playing a snooker behind a free ball,
(viii) playing a jump shot,
(ix) playing with a non-standard cue, or
(x) conferring with a partner contrary to Section 3
(b) value of the ball on or ball concerned, whichever
is higher, by
(i) striking when any ball is not at rest,
(ii) striking before the referee has completed the spotting
of a colour,
(iii) causing a ball not on to enter a pocket,
(iv) causing the cue-ball to first hit a ball not on,
(v) making a push stroke
(vi) touching a ball in play, other than the cue-ball
with the tip of the cue as a stroke is made, or
(vii) causing a ball to be forced off the table.
(c) value of the ball on or higher value of the two
balls concerned by causing the cue-ball to first hit
simultaneously two balls, other than two Reds or a free
ball and a ball on.
(d) A penalty of seven points is incurred if the striker
(i) uses a ball off the table for any purpose,
(ii) uses any object to measure gaps or distance,
(iii) plays at Reds, or a free ball followed by a Red,
in successive strokes,
(iv) uses any ball other than White as the cue-ball
for any stroke once the frame has started,
(v) fails to declare which ball he is on when requested
to do so by the referee, or
(vi) after potting a Red or free ball nominated as a
Red, commits a foul before nominating a colour.
13. Play Again
Once a player has requested an opponent to play again
after a foul, such request cannot be withdrawn. The
offended, having been asked to play again, is entitled
(a) change his mind as to
(i) which stroke he will play, and
(ii) which ball on he will attempt to hit.
(b) score points for any ball or balls he may pot.
14. Foul and a Miss
The striker shall, to the best of his ability, endeavour
to hit the ball on. If the referee considers the Rule
infringed, he shall call FOUL AND A MISS unless only
the Black remains on the table, or a situation exists
where it is impossible to hit the ball on. In the latter
case it must be assumed the striker is attempting to
hit the ball on provided that he plays, directly or
indirectly, in the direction of the ball on with sufficient
strength, in the referee’s opinion, to have reached
the ball on but the obstructing ball or balls.
(a) After a foul and a miss has been called, the next
player may request the offender to play again from the
position left or, at his discretion, from the original
position, in which latter case the ball on shall be
the same as it was prior to the last stroke made, namely:
(i) any Red, where Red was the ball on,
(ii) the colour on, where all Reds were off the table,
(iii) a colour of the striker’s choice, where
the ball on was a colour after a Red had been potted.
(b) If the striker, in making a stroke, fails to first
hit a ball on when there is a clear path in a straight
line from the cue-ball to any part of any ball that
is or could be on, the referee shall call FOUL AND A
MISS unless either player needed snookers before, or
as a result of, the stroke played and the referee is
satisfied that the miss was not intentional.
(c) After a miss has been called under paragraph (b)
above when there was a clear path in a straight line
from the cue-ball to a ball that was on or that could
have been on, such that central, full-ball, contact
was available (in the case of Reds, this to be taken
as a full diameter of any Red that is not obstructed
by a colour), then:
(i) a further failure to first hit a ball on in making
a stroke from the same position shall be called as a
FOUL AND A MISS regardless of the difference in scores,
(ii) if asked to play again from the original position,
the offender shall be warned by the referee that a third
failure will result in the frame being awarded to his
(d) After the cue-ball has been replaced under this
Rule, when there is a clear path in a straight line
from the cue-ball to any part of any ball that is or
could be on, and the striker fouls any ball, including
the cue-ball while preparing to play a stroke, a miss
will not be called if a stroke has not been played.
In this case the appropriate penalty will be imposed
(i) the next player may elect to play the stroke himself
or ask the offender to play again from the position
(ii) the next player may ask the referee to replace
all balls moved to their original position and have
the offender play again from there, and
(iii) if the above situation arises during a sequence
of miss calls, any warning concerning the possible awarding
of the frame to his opponent shall remain in effect.
(e) All other misses will be called at the discretion
of the referee.
(f) After a miss and a request by the next player to
replace the cue-ball, any object balls disturbed will
remain where they are unless the referee considers the
offending player would or could gain an advantage. In
the latter case, any or all disturbed balls may be replaced
to the referee’s satisfaction and in either case,
colours incorrectly off the table will be spotted or
replaced as appropriate.
(g) When any ball is being replaced after a miss, both
the offender and the next player will be consulted as
to its position, after which the referee’s decision
shall be final.
(h) During such consultation, if either player should
touch any ball in play, he shall be penalised as if
he were the striker, without affecting the order of
play. The ball touched shall be replaced by the referee,
to his satisfaction, if necessary, even if it was picked
(i) The next player may ask if the referee intends to
replace balls other than the cue-ball in the event that
he should ask for the stroke to be played from the original
position, and the referee shall state his intentions.
15. Ball Moved by Other than
If a ball, stationary or moving, is disturbed other
than by the striker, it shall be re-positioned by the
referee to the place he judges the ball was, or would
have finished, without penalty.
(a) This Rule shall include cases where another occurrence
or person, other than the striker’s partner, causes
the striker to move a ball.
(b) No player shall be penalised for any disturbance
of balls by the referee.
If the referee thinks a position of stalemate exists,
or is being approached, he shall offer the players the
immediate option of re-starting the frame. If any player
objects, the referee shall allow play to continue with
the proviso that the situation must change within a
stated period, usually after three more strokes to each
side but at the referee’s discretion. If the situation
remains basically unchanged after the stated period
has expired, the referee shall nullify all scores and
re-set all balls as for the start of a frame and
(a) the same player shall again make the opening stroke,
(b) the same order of play shall be maintained.
17. Four-handed Snooker
(a) In a four-handed game each side shall open alternate
frames and the order of play shall be determined at
the start of each frame and, when so determined, must
be maintained throughout that frame.
(b) Players may change the order of play at the start
of each new frame.
(c) If a foul is committed and a request to play again
is made, the player who committed the foul plays again,
even if the foul was made out of turn, and the original
order of play is maintained such that the offender’s
partner may lose a turn.
(d) When a frame ends in a tie Section 3 Rule 4 applies.
If a re-spotted Black is necessary the pair who play
the first stroke have the choice of which player will
make that stroke. The order of play must then continue
as in the frame.
(e) Partners may confer during a frame but not
(i) whilst one is the striker and at the table, nor
(ii) after the first stroke of the striker’s turn
until the break ends.
18. Use of Ancillary Equipment
It is the responsibility of the striker to both place
and remove any equipment he may use at the table.
(a) The striker is responsible for all items including,
but not limited to, rests and extensions that he brings
to the table, whether owned by him or borrowed (except
from the referee), and he will be penalised for any
fouls made by him when using this equipment.
(b) Equipment normally found at the table which has
been provided by another party including the referee
are not the responsibility of the striker. Should this
equipment prove to be faulty and thereby cause the striker
to touch a ball or balls, no fouls will be called. The
referee will, if necessary, reposition any balls in
accordance with Rule 15 above and the striker, if in
a break, will be allowed to continue without penalty.
(a) Throughout these Rules and Definitions, words implying
the masculine gender shall equally apply to and include
the female gender.
(b) Circumstances may necessitate adjustment in how
Rules are applied for persons with physical handicaps.
In particular and for example:
(i) Section 3 Rule 12(a)(ii) cannot be applied to players
in wheelchairs, and
(ii) a player, upon request to the referee, shall be
told the colour of a ball if he is unable to differentiate
between colours as, for example, red and green.
(c) When there is no referee, such as in a social game,
the opposing player or side will be regarded as such
for the purpose of these Rules.
SECTION 4. THE PLAYERS
In the event of:
(a) a Player taking an abnormal amount
of time over a stroke or the selection of a stroke;
(b) any conduct by a Player which in the opinion
of the referee is wilfully or persistently unfair; or
(c) any other conduct by a Player which otherwise
amounts to ungentlemanly conduct; or
(d) refusing to continue a frame;
the referee shall either:
(e) warn the Player that in the event of any such further
conduct the frame will be awarded to his opponent; or
(f) award the frame to his opponent; or
(g) in the event that the conduct is sufficiently serious
award the game to his opponent
If a referee has warned the Player
under (e) above, in the event of any further conduct
as referred to above, the referee must either:
(a) award the frame to his opponent; or
(b) in the event that the further conduct is sufficiently
serious, award the game to his opponent.
If a referee has awarded a frame to
a Player’s opponent pursuant to the above provisions,
in the event of any further conduct as referred to above
by the Player concerned, the referee must award the
game to the Player’s opponent.
Any decision by a referee to award a frame and/or the
game to a Player’s opponent shall be final and
shall not be subject to any appeal.
(a) If a frame is forfeited under this Section, the
(i) lose the frame; and
(ii) forfeit all points scored and the non-offender
shall receive a number of points equivalent to the value
of the balls remaining on the table, with each Red counting
as eight points and any colour incorrectly off the table
being counted as if spotted.
(b) If a game is forfeited under this Section, the offender
(i) lose the frame in progress as in (a); and
(ii) additionally lose the required number of unplayed
frames to complete the game where frames are relevant;
(iii) additionally lose the remaining frames, each valued
at 147 points, where aggregate points apply
The non-striker shall, when the striker is playing,
avoid standing or moving in line of sight of the striker.
He shall sit or stand at a reasonable distance from
In the case of his absence from the room, the non-striker
may appoint a deputy to watch his interest and claim
a foul if necessary. Such appointment must be made known
to the referee prior to departure.
(a) A player may only concede when he is the striker.
The opponent has the right to accept or refuse the concession,
which becomes null and void if the opponent chooses
to play on
(b) When aggregate scores apply and a frame is conceded,
the value of any balls remaining on the table is added
to the score of the other side. In such case, Reds shall
count as eight points each and any colour incorrectly.
(c) A player shall not concede a frame in any match
unless snookers are required. Any breach of this rule
shall be regarded as ungentlemanly conduct by the player
SECTION 5. THE OFFICIALS
1. The Referee
(a) The referee shall
(i) be the sole judge of fair and unfair play,
(ii) be free to make a decision in the interests of
fair play for any situation not covered adequately by
(iii) be responsible for the proper conduct of the game
under these Rules
(iv) intervene if he sees any infringement of these
(v) tell a player the colour of a ball if requested,
(vi) clean any ball upon reasonable request by a player.
(b) The referee shall not
(i) answer any question not authorised in these Rules,
(ii) give any indication that a player is about to make
a foul stroke,
(iii) give any advice or opinion on points affecting
(iv) answer any question regarding the difference in
(c) If the referee has failed to notice any incident,
he may at his discretion take the evidence of the marker
or other officials or spectators best placed for the
observation or may view a camera/video recording of
the incident to assist his decision.
2. The Marker
The marker shall keep the score on the scoreboard and
assist the referee in carrying out his duties. He shall
also act as recorder if necessary.
3. The Recorder
The recorder shall maintain a record of each stroke
played, showing fouls where appropriate and how many
points are scored by each player or side as required.
He shall also make note of break totals.
4. Assistance by Officials
(a) At the striker’s request, the referee or marker
shall move and hold in position any lighting apparatus
that interferes with the action of the striker in making
(b) It is permissible for the referee or marker to give
necessary assistance to handicapped players according
to their circumstances.
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